# Simplified approach to user-defined estimands

Amos provides a simplified approach to user-defined estimands that meets most needs. The simplified approach has the following limitations.

- In a multiple-group analysis, each group must have the same path diagram.
- Each user-defined estimand must be defined by a single expression.
- The estimation criterion must be one of the following: maximum likelihood, generalized least squares, unweighted least squares, scale-free least squares. (The simplified approach is not available for Bayesian estimation.)

You can avoid these limitations by using the general approach to user-defined estimands.

A tutorial shows how to use the simplified approach. The tutorial shows how to estimate various indirect effects that Amos does not normally calculate. You can download the model and the data for the tutorial.

Examples 38 and 39 in the user's guide (English/Japanese) show the simplified approach to user-defined estimands.